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his page is aimed at showing us that values development may be achieved through integration in the different subject areas. Find out the approaches in the integration of values and the strategies in the integration of values.

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Approaches in Integration of Values


Values Development may be achieved through integration in the different subject areas.

Values integration involves the development of the values system of the learner as a part of the totality of his education. The learning process in any subject area covers the acquisition not only of concepts and skills but also of values. The identification of values to be integrated arises from the nature of the discipline and its content. For example, learning science concepts and acquiring scientific skills should lead to the development of the scientific attitude-intellectual honesty, respect for the emergence of new knowledge and system in phenomenal patterns, and preciseness and discipline in work performance. The experience of the decision-making process in the social sciences should develop objectivity, appreciation of knowledge and its application to the choice-making activity, truthfulness, and the valuing of historical experience of aesthetic values. Health and physical education should bring about a respect for life and the human body.

In general, the success of the integration of values in the different subject areas depends on the teacherís creativity in making use of situations to facilitate the studentís values development, as well as on his perceptive skills to identify points in a lesson that would serve as entry points for specific values

Reference: Values Education for the Filipino
1997 Revised Version of the
DECS Values Education Program
UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines
Education Committee Project


Values can be properly integrated in the school curricula. In this regard, there are several approaches to integrating values in the school curricula across levels. One of them is the so-called vertical integration approach, wherein the value concepts are integrated from the lowest to the highest level of education. Under this scheme, we have what we call total-vertical and partial-vertical integration. The former means that values are integrated in all subjects and in all levels of education. On the other hand, the latter is the integration in some selected subjects/courses in all levels of education.

Another scheme is what we call the horizontal integration approach. Under this arrangement, integration is only done in one specific grade or year level. For instance, in the elementary grades, should it be done only in grade one or in grade six? In high school, should it be observed only in the first year or the third year? In the tertiary level, in what year level should it be appropriate? The scheme likewise uses the total-horizontal and partial-horizontal integration. The former means that integration should be done in all subjects/courses in the selected grade/year level while the latter applies the process only selected subjects/courses in the grade/year level singled out for such purpose.

Natural and unnatural integration are also common approaches used in integration concepts in the educational setting. The former utilizes the subject matter or activity undertaken to emphasize concepts or values the teacher wishes to bring about. The teacher does not need to think of preparing a new subject matter or activity just to teach a value he wants the learners to be aware of. Practically all lessons have values already infused in them. Activities to undertake to accomplish the objectives of the lesson are also rich in values. What the teacher should do is to identify the values properly using the discovery strategy. On the contrary, the unnatural integration is one in which the teachers are asked to add an activity to their lesson plan such that a particular value is touched. This may become artificial, especially when the specific value to be taken up does not jibe with the subject matter on hand. It is unfortunate that some administrators are resorting to this scheme just to comply with the directives on values education. Obviously, the former scheme is a much better scheme than the latter.

Eclectic integration is not a new arrangement in the educational scene. It means using two or more schemes in integrating concepts in the curricular offerings. It is not just a matter of combining approaches to be used but more importantly, identifying those approaches that would best bring fruitful results. In integrating values in all levels, it appears that the use of the total vertical and horizontal integration plus natural integration will bring about the desired goals and objectives. One or two of the values can be fused together and be integrated in a subject taught. For example, patriotism and nationalism can easily be fused together in social studies, literature and in other subjects. Justice, equity, economic development can all be fused together under social responsibility which can be integrated in all the subjects across levels.

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