2005 Copyright ⓒ Benjamin Isaac G. Marte and Nonita C. Marte All Rights Reserved.

MAJOR APPROACHES IN VALUES EDUCATION

Here are the major approaches and strategies for values development namely: inculcation, moral development, clarification, value analysis, action learning and transpersonal approach. However, we created a special page for the PNU-ACES approach which we believe has a very high probability of "winning the hearts and minds" of the learners of values. Check it out.

MAJOR VALUES DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES AND STRATEGIES

1. Inculcation

2. Moral Development

3. Clarification

4. Analysis

5. Action Learning-goes beyond thinking and feeling

6. Transpersonal Approach

APPROACH

PURPOSE

METHODS/STRATEGIES

To instill or internalize certainvalues in students. To change the values of students so they more nearly reflect certain desired values.

To help students develop more complex moral reasoning patterns based on a higher set of values. To urge students to discuss the reasons for their value choices and positions not merely to share change in the stages of reasoning of students.

To help students become aware of and identify their own values and those of others. To help students use communicate openly & honestly with others about their values. To help students both rational thinking and emotional awareness to examining their personal feelings, values and behavioral patterns.

To help students use logical thinking and scientific procedures in order to investigate social issues inherent to their immediate surrounding. To help students use rational and analytical processes in interrelating and conceptualizing their values.

To provide students with opportunities and chances to discover and act on their values. To encourage students to view themselves as personal-social interactive beings, not fully autonomous, but members of a community or social system.

To develop among students a higher level of consciousness and spiritual upliftment. It underscores the process of self discovery and the significance of self-actualization to become a fully functioning person.

modeling, positive and negative reinforcement, mocking, nagging, manipulating alternatives , providing incomplete or biased data; games and simulation, role playing discovery learning; and story telling.

moral dilemma episode, with small group discussion relatively structured and argumentative, case study

role playing games; simulations; contrived or real value-laden situations; in-depth self-analysis exercise, sensitivity activities; out-of-class activities; small group discussion; clarifying response strategy (CRS) values grid, ranking, group dynamics

Structured rational discussion that demands application of reasons as well as evidence; testing principles; analyzing analogous cases; debate; research. Individual or group study library and field with rational class discussions.

Those method listed for analysis and clarification as well as action project within the school and community and skill practice in group organizing and enter-personal relations.

rest and relaxation exercises, meditation and brief fantasizing, imagination, creativity and mind games, awareness activities